Rocket | Science
Here, it probably IS rocket science. A place for me to discuss astrophysics and space exploration, although other sorts of science, math, and technology are likely to make appearances.

"Per aspera ad astra"
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xysciences:

Wallace-Bolyai-Gerwien theory is the theory that any two polygons are equidecomposable. 
That is that one can be cut into finitely many polygon pieces and be rearranged to obtain the second polygon. 
[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

xysciences:

Wallace-Bolyai-Gerwien theory is the theory that any two polygons are equidecomposable. 

That is that one can be cut into finitely many polygon pieces and be rearranged to obtain the second polygon. 

[Click for more interesting science facts and gifs]

humanoidhistory:

Physicist Robert Oppenheimer photographed by Phillipe Halsman, 1958.
(Magnum)

humanoidhistory:

Physicist Robert Oppenheimer photographed by Phillipe Halsman, 1958.

(Magnum)

thenewenlightenmentage:

What’s Up? The Moon
Image Credit: Greg Redfern

thenewenlightenmentage:

What’s Up? The Moon

Image Credit: Greg Redfern

cypher2:

ESPN Films and ESPN W | Nine for IX “Branded” | for saveitlikesolo

I think without question women who aspire to be athletes, who want to play sports, are better off today than they were thirty years ago. I think it really encouraged young girls to go out there and aspire to their dreams and try to reach their goals. 

But despite Title IX, women have really gained very little at the professional sports level over time. 

It’s a cultural issue. It’s not just a women in sport issue. As a culture we have to look at all of the messages we send out on a daily basis about what we think is important. I think we’ve made a lot of progress. But I think we have a lot of progress to make.

Great Scientists: Gregor Mendel

sciencesoup:

Membrane Structure: Fluid Mosaic Model
Biological membranes enclose all the interesting and diverse organelles we discussed a while back, sort of analogous to the skin of our bodies. But membranes aren’t just passive barriers between organelles and the environment—they have dynamic, unique functions, and are able to control the structures, environments and metabolisms of the compartments they enclose.
Cell membranes are composed of phospholipids building blocks which have water-hating tails and water-loving heads. When you leave them alone, they form a bilayer with their heads in contact with water and their tails clustered in the middle. This bilayer is only about 5 nanometres thick, but it’s the fabric of the biological membrane.
But lipids aren’t the only things that form the cell membrane—there are proteins and sterols besides. The fluid mosaic model, proposed by Singer and Nicholson in 1972, aims to describe the general structure of biological membranes. The “fluid” part of the name refers to the ability of lipids and proteins to float around in the membrane, meaning that it’s not actually solid—it’s more like a fluid, as we’ll talk about in the next article. The “mosaic” part refers to how the membrane is made up of many different irregular parts: proteins, lipids, and sterols. 
There are two main types of proteins present in the cell membrane. Firstly, integral proteins, which penetrate through the outer bilayer and right into the hydrophobic core. Just like the bilayer, integral proteins are amphipathic: the bits on the outside are hydrophilic, and the bits on the inside are hydrophobic. Sometimes, these are also “transmembrane” proteins, spanning right through one side and out the other. These are pretty stable, and they can’t easily escape because their different parts are exactly where they want to be.

Secondly, cell membranes are also host to peripheral proteins. These are hydrophilic so they can’t penetrate the hydrophobic core. Therefore they aren’t embedded in the bilayer; they sit on the outside more like an appendage, weakly bound to the membrane surface. For this reason, they’re easily washed off.
Proteins have a huge array of functions—they can communicate with the outside environment, transport ions and molecules into and out of the cell (we’ll talk about that soon), control whether cells join up to each other, they’re the targets of most drugs, they can act as anchors to the cytoskeleton, and they control many metabolic processes.
The cell membrane is also home to layers of diverse carbohydrate chains. These are attached to proteins or lipids as glycoprotein or glycolipid, and they are thought to be involved in identification and recognition.
Cholesterol is also of crucial importance to the membrane structure, improving the strength and flexibility of the membrane while also increasing its fluidity.
Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons
Further resources: Fluid Mosaic Model video from khanacademymedicine

sciencesoup:

Membrane Structure: Fluid Mosaic Model

Biological membranes enclose all the interesting and diverse organelles we discussed a while back, sort of analogous to the skin of our bodies. But membranes aren’t just passive barriers between organelles and the environment—they have dynamic, unique functions, and are able to control the structures, environments and metabolisms of the compartments they enclose.

Cell membranes are composed of phospholipids building blocks which have water-hating tails and water-loving heads. When you leave them alone, they form a bilayer with their heads in contact with water and their tails clustered in the middle. This bilayer is only about 5 nanometres thick, but it’s the fabric of the biological membrane.

But lipids aren’t the only things that form the cell membrane—there are proteins and sterols besides. The fluid mosaic model, proposed by Singer and Nicholson in 1972, aims to describe the general structure of biological membranes. The “fluid” part of the name refers to the ability of lipids and proteins to float around in the membrane, meaning that it’s not actually solid—it’s more like a fluid, as we’ll talk about in the next article. The “mosaic” part refers to how the membrane is made up of many different irregular parts: proteins, lipids, and sterols. 

There are two main types of proteins present in the cell membrane. Firstly, integral proteins, which penetrate through the outer bilayer and right into the hydrophobic core. Just like the bilayer, integral proteins are amphipathic: the bits on the outside are hydrophilic, and the bits on the inside are hydrophobic. Sometimes, these are also “transmembrane” proteins, spanning right through one side and out the other. These are pretty stable, and they can’t easily escape because their different parts are exactly where they want to be.

image

Secondly, cell membranes are also host to peripheral proteins. These are hydrophilic so they can’t penetrate the hydrophobic core. Therefore they aren’t embedded in the bilayer; they sit on the outside more like an appendage, weakly bound to the membrane surface. For this reason, they’re easily washed off.

Proteins have a huge array of functions—they can communicate with the outside environment, transport ions and molecules into and out of the cell (we’ll talk about that soon), control whether cells join up to each other, they’re the targets of most drugs, they can act as anchors to the cytoskeleton, and they control many metabolic processes.

The cell membrane is also home to layers of diverse carbohydrate chains. These are attached to proteins or lipids as glycoprotein or glycolipid, and they are thought to be involved in identification and recognition.

Cholesterol is also of crucial importance to the membrane structure, improving the strength and flexibility of the membrane while also increasing its fluidity.

Body images sourced from Wikimedia Commons

Further resources: Fluid Mosaic Model video from khanacademymedicine

NY DAILY NEWS: HIV returns in Mississippi girl hoped to have been cured: doctors

inothernews:

Some news is simply too good to be true.


Sunrise on Mercury
Of Interest: Today’s image features a large area near the south pole of Mercury. On the right side of this image, going from top to bottom are both the Terror Rupes and Eltanin Rupes. In the middle of the right edge is Alver, a peak-ring crater. Below Alver is Disney, a crater named after the animator Walt Disney.The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft’s seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System’s innermost planet. During the first two years of orbital operations, MESSENGER acquired over 150,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

Sunrise on Mercury

Of Interest: Today’s image features a large area near the south pole of Mercury. On the right side of this image, going from top to bottom are both the Terror Rupes and Eltanin Rupes. In the middle of the right edge is Alver, a peak-ring crater. Below Alver is Disney, a crater named after the animator Walt Disney.

The MESSENGER spacecraft is the first ever to orbit the planet Mercury, and the spacecraft’s seven scientific instruments and radio science investigation are unraveling the history and evolution of the Solar System’s innermost planet. During the first two years of orbital operations, MESSENGER acquired over 150,000 images and extensive other data sets. MESSENGER is capable of continuing orbital operations until early 2015.
Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of Washington

(Source: mindblowingscience)

jtotheizzoe:

The oldest living thing in the world: These actinobacteria, recovered from the subterranean brrrrr-osphere that is Siberian permafrost, are estimated to be 500,000 years old. While many ancient microbes have been revived from ancient dormant states, these bacterial cells have been continuously living for half a million years.
Unable to divide and reproduce, these microbes were shown to be actively repairing their DNA despite the frigid temperatures, their enzymes uniquely adapted to an environment that would mean certain death for perhaps every other creature on Earth. While not growing, moving, or reproducing, this sort of cryostasis counts as living if you ask me (and the scientists who study them).
What do you think this means for the possibility of life on other planets?
(via Rachel Sussman and Brain Pickings)

jtotheizzoe:

The oldest living thing in the world: These actinobacteria, recovered from the subterranean brrrrr-osphere that is Siberian permafrost, are estimated to be 500,000 years old. While many ancient microbes have been revived from ancient dormant states, these bacterial cells have been continuously living for half a million years.

Unable to divide and reproduce, these microbes were shown to be actively repairing their DNA despite the frigid temperatures, their enzymes uniquely adapted to an environment that would mean certain death for perhaps every other creature on Earth. While not growing, moving, or reproducing, this sort of cryostasis counts as living if you ask me (and the scientists who study them).

What do you think this means for the possibility of life on other planets?

(via Rachel Sussman and Brain Pickings)